Sculpture is one of the most fascinating branches of visual arts. “Sculpture” is derived from the Latin word “sculpere” which means to carve. This mainly evokes a great impact in the area of religion. In many religion, different sculptures of goddess are created in devotion in many countries. Moreover, it is a great part of cultures which leaves a mark of civilization of that time for a long period of time. Many people often commission sculptors to make sculpture for private individual – sometimes, for politics or sometimes, for their own luxury or fascination. It is said that this ancient tradition begun in Greece which is termed as the location of great masterpieces. During the middle age, Christian faith was focused in Gothic sculpture. Gradually, modernism took place in the area of sculpture. There are mainly four basic types of this art which are molded, cast, carved and assembled. Clay, wax, sand, papier-macheetc media are normally used for molded sculpture. Cast sculpture is done from modeling the sculpture to make mold and finally casting it in metal or any other medium. While carved sculpture takes years to complete, assembled sculpture pulls any textured forms. Generally, various materials such as stones, metal, wood, glass, pottery, ice and many other hard materials are used to make sculpture. This is mainly a three dimensional figure and artists use diverse techniques and methods to make this 3-D works.
The process of creating sculpture is divided into three basic process. Carving; removing unwanted materials to create the form, Modeling; to have the wanted shape and assembly; to arrange the entire thing. Wood is one of the most popular choice for the sculptors which is widely practiced till today. As this is very light in weight, sculptors can draw anything as per they want in the wood very smoothly. There are different styles of wood carving like Treen, Whittling, Lovespoon, Caricature carving, Relief Carving, Chip Carving, Chainsaw Carving, Scandinavian flat plane etc. Wood sculpture developed a great influence in African culture.
Stone sculpture are an ancient form of sculptures where stones are used to make interesting three-dimensional object through carving or assembling with sculptor’s skilled artistic touch. To create texture within the work, some specific tools like toothed chisel or claw chisel etc. are used precising markings with charcoal, pencil or crayon on the stones. Artists choose stones in terms of their choice of hardness, quality, color and many such things because the end result varies according to the stones. As the softer the stone is, the easier to work with it.
Snow sculptures are interesting to sound and this is carved out of a huge size of snow balls. Ice are also used as raw materials in making ice sculptures. The metals are widely used in sculptures in which bronze, copper, aluminum, gold, silver, brass, lead, iron etc. are included. Day by day, sculpture art is improved much because of including modernist sculpture movements which covers cubism, suprematism, pop art, geometric abstraction, constructivism, minimalism, Surrealism, installation art etc. Sculptures survive in those countries of the ancient Mediterranean, India, China, Japan, Africa and South America also.
On the other hand, many anti sculpture movements occurred in many countries. Any kind of figurative objects are rejected in Islam and also in Judaism, Christian Eastern Orthodoxy. By overcoming all hardships, the artists profuse their talent in making sculptures with emotions. The famous sculptors are such as – Donatello, Michelangelo, Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Auguste Rodin, Alberto Giacometti, Henry Moore, Sol Lewitt, Louise Bourgeois and so on. These sculptors always tried to make their art alive which are carried out as encouragement for other new artists.